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History of the Christian Church – After the resurrection 33AD to 350AD

33AD

  • Jesus gives followers their  purpose which is  to preach The Word to all people across the world.  Matthew 28:18-end
  •  Jesus asks Peter to care for his Lambs John 21:15-19
  • Jesus leaves the disciples and goes to Heaven Acts 1:9
  • 120 followers meet as a group to pray and make decisions Acts 1:14; 21-end
  • Judas is replaced, Matthias chosen by lots. Acts 1:22
  • Pentecost giving the Holy Spirit. 50 days after Passover – Commemorating God’s giving the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai, 49 days after the Exodus.                Acts 2: 1-4.
  • The first mission Peter preaches and 3,000 Jews join Acts 2: 5-42
  • Early fellowship miracles, sharing worship and wealth Acts 2:43-end

34-37AD

  • Church grows to 5,000 Jews accepting Jesus as the Messiah Acts 4:4
  • Peter heals cripple – first trial & let go with warnings Acts 3:6 – 4:19
  • Barnabas a Levite from Cyprus joins the church Acts 4:36-37
  • Apostles put in prison, escape and preach again, arrested Acts 5:17-32
  • Gamaliel sets them free – but were whipped first Acts 5:33-34;38-end
  • Gentiles join problems, first hierarchy 7 new leaders Stephen Acts 6:1-4; 6

36AD         Pontius Pilate replaced by Marcellus.

37AD         Emperor Tiberius dies        

37AD         Reign of Emperor Caligula (Gaius) 4 years

38-39AD    5 years

  • First martyr Stephen by Saul – Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and said, “I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.” They all rushed at him, dragged him out of the city and stoned him.   Acts 7
  • Persecution of the church Saul Acts 8:1-3
  • New church started away from Jerusalem in Antioch Acts 8:4-6; 14
  • Church goes to the half Jews in Samaria by Philip Acts 8:27-30; 36-38
  • Saul’s conversion goes to Tarsus and Time of peace  Acts 9:3-6: 31

40AD         Caligula ordered people to worship him as a tangible living god, and to have his statue erected the Temple of Jerusalem Jews rioted

41AD         Emperor Caligula assassinated             

41AD         Roman Emperor Claudius @ 48ys 15 years  

41AD         8 years after Jesus rose

  • Cornelius calls for Peter                                               Acts 9:32; 10:5
  • Peter’s vision – Mission to Gentiles Acts 10:11-13: 19-21
  • Barnabas at Antioch & collects Saul                             Acts 11:22-25
  • Predicted of severe famine                                               Acts 11:28

42-50AD    Severe famine in Claudius reign                                                          

43AD began conquest of Britain

44-48AD    11 years

  • King Herod starts persecution James killed at Pentecost Acts 12:1-2
  • Christianity spreads to Antioch in Syria, Jordan, Alexandria in Egypt, Ethiopia, Asia Minor /Turkey,
  • 44AD Herod Agrippa’s Death at Caesarea Acts 12:23
  • Barnabas and Saul/Paul sent to Cyprus                             Acts 13:2-3
  • 1st mission to Turkey (B&P) Perga, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, Acts 13/14
  • Paul & Barnabas back to Antioch Acts 14:26-27
  • Circumcision council Acts 15:1, 5, 19
  • Barnabas & Paul argue Acts 15: 39-40
  • Paul shows himself a hypocrite having Timothy circumcised Acts 16:1,3
  • Lydia a leading business women conversion                              Acts 16:14
  • Prison officer converted and Paul baptises family Acts 16:33
  • As the Christian movement began to accept non-Jewish members, it moved further away from the strict rules imposed on Jews and in so doing, it gradually became a new and separate religion.
  • First stories of Jesus’ life start to be written – Q
  • AD48 census found 5,984,072 Roman citzenship

49AD Claudius excludes Christians from Rome                                 Acts 18:1-2             Christian communion was mistaken as cannibalism, and all being within the family of God loving one another as brothers and sister as incest.

50-54AD    17 years

  • Paul in Athens                              Acts 17:16
  • Felix becomes Procurator 51AD
  • Paul in Corinth – starts the church 1.5years                              Acts 18:1
  • Herod Agrippa II given Tetrarchy of Trachonitis 52AD
  • Thomas the Disciple lands in India November 21                                52AD
  • Paul meets Aquila & Priscilla                              Acts 18:18
  • Men following John, Paul teaching for 2 years in Ephesus Acts 19:3, 10
  • Apollos from Egypt spoke about Jesus from John the Baptist Acts 19:25-25
  • Greeks influence growing Gnostic beliefs, Christians thought Jesus was both human and divine, Gnostics thought he was divine only, but appeared human and that the Old Testament was now unnecessary. Also they shunned the material world requiring personal poverty, sexual abstinence (Its influence in Christian theology grew to encourage reclusive living, hermits, searching for wisdom by helping others, abstainers and into the priesthood and monastic life, friars, monks, nuns)

54AD         Emperor Claudius died aged 63           

54AD         Roman Emperor Nero

  • Pauls mission traveling to many cities & churches Acts 20 -23

58AD         25 years

  • Paul goes to Jerusalem The early Christians preached the second coming of a Messiah which did not conform to the Jewish religious teachings
  • Paul imprisoned at Caesarea by Felix                              Acts 24:23
  • Peter Goes to Rome with Mark to build up church, leaves Clement as bishop in his place, there are now Christian churches across the Roman Empire, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Italy, France and Spain starts to write ‘Q’
  • Peter Writes his two letters

60-62AD    27 years

  • Festus becomes Procurator 60AD
  • Paul sent to Rome by Festus  60AD
  • Paul a prisoner in Rome Starts writing letters
  • James brother of Jesus – Killed  62AD

64-68AD

  • The fire in Rome – summer 19th July 64AD
  • Nero’s Christian persecution 20th July 64AD

He arrested and tortured all the Christians in Rome, then executing them with lavish publicity. Some were crucified, some were thrown to wild animals and others were burned alive as living torches.

  • John arrested sent to Patmos salt mines 64AD
  • Christianity was recognized as a separate religion from Judaism 65AD

66-70AD Jews rise up against the Romans,

  • Procurators Florus (64-66AD) robs Temple,  revolt take Jerusalem and Masada sacrifices in behalf of the emperor were stopped which became a declaration of war. Christians fled to Pella across the Jordan
  • Nero orders Vespasian to Israel  66AD
  • Josephus surrenders to Vespasian 67AD
  • Peter   crucified upside-down?  (possible 60 years old) 67AD
  • Paul beheaded?   (possible 58 years old)  67AD
  • Linus friend of Paul’s becomes Pope [11 years] he issued a decree that women should cover their heads in church, created the first fifteen bishops 67AD
  • Nero’s starts his persecution a vast multitude, were convicted, not so much of the crime of incendiarism as of hatred of the human race. And in their deaths they were made the subjects of sport; for they were wrapped in the hides of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set on fire, and when day declined, were burned to serve for nocturnal lights.67AD

68AD Nero dies

  • Mark write his Gospel in Rome [Q]

69AD

  • Jerusalem besieged by the Roman  General Vespasian
  • Roman Emperor Galba
  • Roman Emperor Otto (3 months)
  • Roman Emperor Vitellius
  • Vespasian leaves his son Titus to finish war
  • Roman Emperor Vespasian

70AD -79AD

  • Jerusalem Temple destroyed by Titus 70AD
  • Centres of Christianity move to Antioch, Rome and Alexandria 70AD
  • Matthew writes his Gospel [Q]    72AD
  • Masada falls  73AD
  • John writes Revelation 74AD
  • Luke writes his Gospel  [Q]  75AD
  • Luke writes Acts  7AD
  • John freed from Patmos goes to Ephesus 77AD
  • Linus 2nd Pope dies a martyr buried on Vatican Hill next to Peter. 79AD
  • Anacletus become pope – set up 25 parishes in Rome  79AD
  • Roman Emperor Vespasian dies  79AD
  • Pomprii destroyed by Vesuvius eruption 79AD
  • Roman Emperor Titus –in the Jewish war over1,000,000 Jews died 79AD

80-100AD

  • John writes his letters 80AD
  • Roman Emperor Titus dies of a fever  81AD
  • Roman Emperor Domitian he murdered thousands of Christians 81AD  Clement becomes Pope – he asserts the apostolic authority and hierarchy of the bishops as rulers of the church, 88AD
  • John writes his Gospel teaches Ignatius, ordained Polycarp bishop of Smyrna 90AD
  • Domitian’s Christian persecution  94AD
  • Murder of Emperor Domitian 96AD
  • Roman Emperor Nerva considered a Good Emperor 2 years 96AD
  • Roman Emperor Trajan, 19 years 98AD
  • John dies in Ephesus  (possible 84 years old)  97AD
  • Clement made pope in Rome 88AD
  • Clement banished to  work in a stone quarry at Chersonesus 99AD.

100–200AD              

  • Ignatius Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, teaches the deity of Jesus as possessed both of flesh and spirit; both made and not made; God existing in flesh; true life in death; both of Mary and of God; first passible (suffer) and then impassible. Coined the phrase “Catholic Church”, serve as a Bishop of Antioch, succeeding Saint Peter and St. Evodius. 100AD
  • Clement martyred, tied to an anchor and thrown into the Black Sea 101AD
  • Ignatius third bishop of Antioch martyred in facing Wild Beasts 107AD
  • When asked by Pliny the Younger how to deal with Christians in the Asian provinces, Trajan replied that they should not be actively pursued. However, they could be punished if they were publicly criticized and refused to abandon their beliefs. 112AD
  • The Jews in Egypt, Palestine, Africa and Cyprus rebel against Roman rule 115AD
  • Trajan puts down these rebellions with unusual cruelty and in 117AD dies .

117–138; Hadrian rules Rome codifies Roman law, rebuilds Pantheon, establishes postal system, 122 builds wall between England and Scotland.

122–130; Jews revolt under Bar Kokhba, capture Jerusalem and set up an independent state of Israel, final Diaspora (dispersion) of Jews begins.

130 – Jerusalem rebuilt by Hadrian in Roman style / Jews allowed in one day a year

132 Emperor Hadrian’s empire wide ban on circumcision, his intention to build a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus on the site of the previous Jerusalem Temple. Judaism was without a homeland until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948

132 Justin Martyr: 1st Christian Philosopher

135 Jerusalem again totally destroyed Christian church scattered

136 All Bishops were now all Greek named before they were Jewish

156 Polycarp (@87) martyred “How then can I blaspheme my King and Saviour? You threaten me with a fire that burns for a season, and after a little while is quenched; but you are ignorant of the fire of everlasting punishment that is prepared for the wicked.” Polycarp was burned at the stake and was pierced with a spear for refusing to burn incense to the Roman Emperor.

161–180 Marcus Aurelius rules Rome.

165 Death of Justin Martyr Born Gentile in Israel foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos (@65) an early theologian who sought to relate and explain the gospel through Greek philosophical concepts.

200–299              

220 ≈ Goths invade Asia Minor). Roman persecutions of Christians increase. Persian (Sassanid) empire re-established. End of Chinese Han dynasty.

 

249 Decius becomes Emperor of Rome. orders persecution of Christians and make emperor-worship compulsory, he rules until 251.

250 Increasing invasions of the Roman empire by Franks and Goths.

300–350             

301 Armenia becomes the world’s first country to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion.

303 Diocletian orders Roman forces to persecute Christians. He orders Christian churches closed throughout the Empire and scriptures burn

306 Emperor Constantine I ascends to the throne in the western half of the empire

312 28th October Constantine battles for Rome after placing a cross on the shields of his soldiers

312–337 Constantine the Great (rules reunites eastern and western Roman empires,

313;  issues Edict of Milan legalizing Christianity  to spread unmolested in the empire

325 May 20th Council of Nicaea, Turkey (40m south of Istanbul), (1800 bishops were invited 1000 in east, 800 in west) about 318 [+5 attendees = <2000] attended, This first ecumenical council was to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, Settle the issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father creating the first creed

The council needed to resolve over the nature of the Son in his relationship to the Father: in particular, whether the Son had been ‘begotten’ by the Father from his own being, and therefore having no beginning, or else created out of nothing, and therefore having a beginning. St. Alexander and Athanasius took the first position; the popular presbyter Arius, took the second. The council decided against the Arians 315-3.

Alexander maintained that the Son was divine in just the same sense that the Father is, co-eternal with the Father, else he could not be a true Son. Arius emphasized the supremacy and uniqueness of God the Father, meaning that the Father alone is almighty and infinite, and that therefore the Father’s divinity must be greater than the Son’s. The view that God or Jesus were ‘mutable or subject to change’ was rejected to maintain that the Son just like the Father was beyond any form of weakness or corruptibility,

Agreement on when to celebrate Easter,

Gnostics believing Jesus was Spirit were kicked out of the church

330 with new capital (Constantinople) on site of Byzantium

337 Constantine becomes a Christian on his deathbed. defines orthodox Christian doctrine.